Accountants put together trial stability to verify the correctness of accounts. If complete of debit balances doesn’t agree with the whole of credit score balances, it’s a clear-cut indication that sure errors have been dedicated whereas recording the transactions within the books of unique entry or subsidiary books. It’s our utmost obligation to find these errors and rectify them, solely then we must always proceed for getting ready closing accounts. We additionally know that every one kinds of errors are usually not revealed by trial stability as a number of the errors don’t impact the whole of trial stability. So these can’t be situated with the assistance of trial stability. An accountant ought to make investments his vitality to find each kinds of errors and rectify them earlier than getting ready buying and selling, revenue and loss account and stability sheet. As a result of if these are ready earlier than rectification these is not going to give us the proper consequence and revenue and loss disclosed by them, shall not be the precise revenue or loss.
All errors of accounting process may be categorized as follows:
1. Errors of Precept
When a transaction is recorded towards the basic ideas of accounting, it’s an error of precept. For instance, if income expenditure is handled as capital expenditure or vice versa.
2. Clerical Errors
These errors can once more be sub-divided as follows:
(i) Errors of omission
When a transaction is both wholly or partially not recorded within the books, it’s an error of omission. It might be with regard to omission to enter a transaction within the books of unique entry or with regard to omission to submit a transaction from the books of unique entry to the account involved within the ledger.
(ii) Errors of fee
When an entry is incorrectly recorded both wholly or partially-incorrect posting, calculation, casting or balancing. A few of the errors of fee impact the trial stability whereas others don’t. Errors effecting the trial stability may be revealed by getting ready a trial stability.
(iii) Compensating errors
Typically an error is counter-balanced by one other error in such a method that it’s not disclosed by the trial stability. Such errors are referred to as compensating errors.
From the viewpoint of rectification of the errors, these may be divided into two teams :
(a) Errors affecting one account solely, and
(b) Errors affecting two or extra accounts.
Errors affecting one account
Errors which have an effect on may be :
(a) Casting errors;
(b) error of posting;
(c) carry ahead;
(d) balancing; and
(e) omission from trial stability.
Such errors ought to, to begin with, be situated and rectified. These are rectified both with the assistance of journal entry or by giving an explanatory be aware within the account involved.
Levels of correction of accounting errors
All kinds of errors in accounts may be rectified at two levels:
(i) earlier than the preparation of the ultimate accounts; and
(ii) after the preparation of ultimate accounts.
Errors rectified throughout the accounting interval
The correct technique of correction of an error is to go journal entry in such a method that it corrects the error that has been dedicated and likewise provides impact to the entry that ought to have been handed. However whereas errors are being rectified earlier than the preparation of ultimate accounts, in sure circumstances the correction cannot be performed with the assistance of journal entry as a result of the errors have been such. Usually, the process of rectification, if being performed, earlier than the preparation of ultimate accounts is as follows:
(a) Correction of errors affecting one facet of 1 account Such errors don’t let the trial stability agree as they impact just one facet of 1 account so these cannot be corrected with the assistance of journal entry, if correction is required earlier than the preparation of ultimate accounts. So required quantity is placed on debit or credit score facet of the involved account, because the case perhaps. For instance:
(i) Gross sales e-book below forged by Rs. 500 within the month of January. The error is barely in gross sales account, to be able to right the gross sales account, we must always file on the credit score facet of gross sales account ‘By below casting of. gross sales e-book for the month of January Rs. 500″.I’Clarification:As gross sales e-book was below forged by Rs. 500, it means all accounts aside from gross sales account are right, solely credit score stability of gross sales account is much less by Rs. 500. So Rs. 500 have been credited in gross sales account.
(ii) Low cost allowed to Marshall Rs. 50, not posted to low cost account. It signifies that the quantity of Rs. 50 which ought to have been debited in low cost account has not been debited, so the debit facet of low cost account has been diminished by the identical quantity. We must always debit Rs. 50 in low cost account now, which was omitted beforehand and the low cost account shall be corrected.
(iil) Items offered to X wrongly debited in gross sales account. This error is effecting solely gross sales account as the quantity which ought to have been posted on the credit score facet has been wrongly positioned on debit facet of the identical account. For rectifying it, we must always put double the quantity of transaction on the credit score facet of gross sales account by writing “By gross sales to X wrongly debited beforehand.”
(iv) Quantity of Rs. 500 paid to Y, not debited to his private account. This error of effecting the non-public account of Y solely and its debit facet is much less by Rs. 500 due to omission to submit the quantity paid. We will now write on its debit facet. “To money (omitted to be posted) Rs. 500.
Correction of errors affecting two sides of two or extra accounts
As these errors have an effect on two or extra accounts, rectification of such errors, if being performed earlier than the preparation of ultimate accounts can typically be performed with the assistance of a journal entry. Whereas correcting these errors the quantity is debited in a single account/accounts whereas comparable quantity is credited to another account/ accounts.
Correction of errors in subsequent accounting interval
As said earlier, that it’s advisable to find and rectify the errors earlier than getting ready the ultimate accounts for the yr. However in sure circumstances when after appreciable search, the accountant fails to find the errors and he’s in a rush to organize the ultimate accounts, of the enterprise for submitting the return for gross sales tax or earnings tax functions, he transfers the quantity of distinction of trial stability to a newly opened ‘Suspense Account’. Within the subsequent accounting interval, as and when the errors are situated these are corrected with regards to suspense account. When all of the errors are found and rectified the suspense account shall be closed routinely. We must always not neglect right here that solely these errors which impact the totals of trial stability may be corrected with the assistance of suspense account. These errors which don’t impact the trial stability cannot be corrected with the assistance of suspense account. For instance, whether it is discovered that debit complete of trial stability was much less by Rs. 500 given that Wilson’s account was not debited with Rs. 500, the next rectifying entry is required to be handed.
Distinction in trial stability
Trial stability is affected by solely errors that are rectified with the assistance of the suspense account. Subsequently, to be able to calculate the distinction in suspense account a desk shall be ready. If the suspense account is debited in’ the rectification entry the quantity shall be placed on the debit facet of the desk. Then again, if the suspense account is credited, the quantity shall be placed on the credit score facet of the desk. In the long run, the stability is calculated and is reversed within the suspense account. If the credit score facet exceeds, the distinction could be placed on the debit facet of the suspense account. Impact of Errors of Closing Accounts
For extra info: escritorio de consultoria contabil es